Gasperment, 39, takes up the role in January and replaces Geoff Skingsley. He moves to the French cosmetics giant's headquarters in Paris to become deputy director general of global human resources.
Gasperment joined L'Oreal 17 years ago and has been general manager of its core L'Oreal Paris makeup brand for the past four years.
She has held various management posts within the company, from new product development to operational marketing, at European and global levels.
As well as its mass-market cosmetic and skincare brands, she takes on responsibility for professional haircare brands Redken, Matrix, Kerastase and L'Oreal Professionnel.
The division's 100-strong marketing department is split into teams focusing on specific brands.