The agency has been briefed to develop the brand by focusing on the London attraction's permanent collection for the first time since its foundation in 1824. Previous activity has focused solely on the gallery's temporary exhibitions or its gift shop.
Central to the development will be a strategic review of The National Gallery to establish its strengths and what it means to visitors.
The Partners, which was awarded the £500,000 business after a pitch handled by the AAR, will develop advertising in the new year based on the review's findings.
The initiatives come in the wake of increased activity from London rivals Tate Britain and the National Portrait Gallery (NPG), both of which are seeking to raise the profile of their brands.
Last month the Tate group handed Fallon the £1m advertising account for its four UK galleries. The agency has been asked to refocus consumer attention on Tate Britain, which has been left in the shadow of Tate Modern since the latter opened in 2000.
In February the NPG unveiled a revamped identity, created by design agency Rufus Leonard, which is intended to reflect its contemporary nature.
The review of The National Gallery brand follows the recent pedestrianisation of Trafalgar Square's North side, which enables easier access to the gallery.
Media planning and buying for The National Gallery will continue to be handled by Total Media.