The multimillion-pound tie-up will see the Hilton International logo appear on the lower rear wing and end plate of the cars driven by Kimi Raikkonen and Juan Pablo Montoya.
As Grand Prix were introduced in Shanghai and Bahrain over the past two years, it will complement the hotel chain's expansion into new markets.
Hilton International has launched Hilton Racing, a complimentary club offering limited-edition merchandise and specialist racing packages.
McLaren Mercedes views the tie-up as crucial for replacing lost revenues following the tobacco advertising ban in the European Union, which came into effect at the end of July (Marketing, 7 September).
The team is replacing German cigarette brand West as its main sponsor from next season. It has already signed a deal with Diageo-owned whisky brand Johnnie Walker and is seeking other sponsors.